One of Haskell's biggest language features is the lazy evaluation system. By default, Haskell evaluates nearly all expressions lazily, as needed. This is one of the features that drew me to Haskell, and indeed it seems a reasonably apt way of writing a raytracer. Raytracing often consists of selectively traversing different parts of large databases for different parts of the scene. Many acceleration schemes involve simple mechanisms to lazily evaluate results.

Laziness, however, does pose an overhead. Haskell introduces a "thunk" for every lazy expression. A thunk describes how to calculate a deferred expression when required. For some expressions, a thunk is a potential time saver: you can defer work until needed, calculate the required value, then re-use it. For other things, such as simple arithmetic operations like vector addition, a thunk is an overhead often comparable to the original operation.

Haskell offers a couple of ways to avoid thunks and therefore lazy evalation. The main two I use are the BangPatterns extension to explicitly mark something as strictly (ie, non-lazily) evaluated, and seq.

The BangPatterns extension allows you to mark expressions that you want to be explicitly evaluated with a !. So, for a Vector, you would write Vector !Float !Float !Float !Float. This way, you force anything you assign to a vector to be strictly evaluated and stored in the vector.

Seq is used to strictly force the evaluation of a function. Seq has the signature of a -> b -> a. It therefore takes two parameters, and returns the second.

An interesting example of where lazy evaluation proven to be an overheard, rather than a win was my light accumulation function. Given a point in space to be shaded, this accumulates the contribution of every light source. Now, the inputs to this function are going to be different every time this function is called as every ray intersection is going to be unique. Thunks will therefore present an additional overhead.

I rewrote my function to use seq. I use seq to strictly evaluate the application of this function, then process the remainder of the list:

accumulateLight :: [Light] -> Colour -> SceneGraph -> Vector -> Vector -> Material -> Vector -> Colour

accumulateLight (x:xs) acc sceneGraph shadePos normal objMaterial viewDirection = let result = acc + (applyLight sceneGraph shadePos normal objMaterial viewDirection x)

in seq result (accumulateLight xs result sceneGraph shadePos normal objMaterial viewDirection)

accumulateLight [] acc _ _ _ _ _ = acc

This change alone saved over a minute of execution time! Since a raytracer generally consists of many similar kinds of loops, I am now searching for wider application of this technique. It's a very difficult call to make with a limited data set. Some functions may be faster if strictly evaluated with a small dataset, but may perform better if evaluated lazily with a larger dataset.

Profiling will guide me.